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What is 5G

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Everything you need to know about 5G

5G networks are cellular networks, in which the service area is divided into small geographical areas called cells. All 5G wireless devices in a cell communicate by radio waves with a cellular base station via fixed antennas, over frequency channels assigned by the base station. The base stations, termed gNodeBs, are connected to switching centers in the telephone network and routers for Internet access by high-bandwidth optical fiber or wireless backhaul connections. As in other cellular networks, a mobile device moving from one cell to another is automatically handed off seamlessly to the current cell.

5G can support up to a million devices per square kilometer, while 4G supports only one-tenth of that capacity. Several network operators use millimeter waves called FR2 in 5G terminology, for additional capacity and higher throughputs. Millimeter waves have a shorter range than microwaves, therefore the cells are limited to a smaller size. Millimeter waves also have more trouble passing through building walls.

Millimeter-wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks. Some are only a few centimeters long. The increased speed is achieved partly by using additional higher-frequency radio waves in addition to the low- and medium-band frequencies used in previous cellular networks. However, higher-frequency radio waves have a shorter useful physical range, requiring smaller geographic cells. For wide service, 5G networks operate on up to three frequency bands – low, medium, and high.

5G can be implemented in low-band, mid-band or high-band millimeter-wave 24 GHz up to 54 GHz. Low-band 5G uses a similar frequency range to 4G cellphones, 900–600 MHz, giving download speeds a little higher than 4G: 250–30 megabits per second (Mbit/s). Low-band cell towers have a range and coverage area similar to 4G towers. Mid-band 5G uses microwaves of 4.7–2.3 GHz, allowing speeds of 900–100 Mbit/s, with each cell tower providing service up to several kilometers in radius.

This level of service is the most widely deployed, and was deployed in many metropolitan areas in 2020. Some regions are not implementing the low band, making Mid-band the minimum service level. High-band 5G uses frequencies of 47–24 GHz, near the bottom of the millimeter wave band, although higher frequencies may be used in the future. It often achieves download speeds in the gigabit-per-second (Gbit/s) range, comparable to cable internet.

However, millimeter waves (mmWave or mmW) have a more limited range, requiring many small cells. They can be impeded or blocked by materials in walls or windows. Due to their higher cost, plans are to deploy these cells only in dense urban environments and areas where crowds of people congregate such as sports stadiums and convention centers. The above speeds are those achieved in actual tests in 2020, and speeds are expected to increase during rollout The spectrum ranging from 29.5–24.25 GHz has been the most licensed and deployed 5G mmWave spectrum range in the world.

The industry consortium setting standards for 5G is the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). It defines any system using 5G NR (5G New Radio) software as "5G", a definition that came into general use by late 2018. Minimum standards are set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

-Wikipedia

Discover The Power of 5G

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  • Advancing Societies
  • • Smarter electricity grids for greatly reduced carbon emissions
    • More connected vehicles sharing data to prevent road collisions
    • Faster deployment of emergency services to accidents
    • Connected sensors that can detect and warn of natural disasters early
    • Drones becoming a key tool to accelerate and support emergency situation response
    • Remote expertise with specialists smoothly consulting/diagnosing patients elsewhere
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  • Transforming Industries
  • • 5G is the foundation for flexible, efficient and responsible business.
    • Production lines autonomously reacting to supply and demand
    • Digital replicas that can warn about real machinery faults ahead of time
    • Logistic networks autonomously routing goods based on real-world conditions
    • Full traceability down to the individual item at warehouses and ports
    • Remote access to powerful robots and vehicles for improved safety in risky environments
    • Increased use of IoT in agriculture to efficiently grow crops
  • news-shape
  • Advancing Societies
  • • Smarter electricity grids for greatly reduced carbon emissions
    • More connected vehicles sharing data to prevent road collisions
    • Faster deployment of emergency services to accidents
    • Connected sensors that can detect and warn of natural disasters early
    • Drones becoming a key tool to accelerate and support emergency situation response
    • Remote expertise with specialists smoothly consulting/diagnosing patients elsewhere

What Are The Opportunities

5G gives communication service providers the ability to serve a multitude of use-cases and use-places with lightning fast connectivity. From smart phones to smart factories, 5G is the open innovation platform that enables society to take the leap towards a smarter, safer and sustainable future

Source:

  • - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5G
  • - https://www.ericsson.com/en/5g
  • - https://www.ericsson.com/en/portfolio/training-offerings/learning-services-newsroom/5g-ran-nr-trainings-2021